GameSim Logs Q1 Licensing Uptick
The company, which caters to the entertainment, modeling and simulation, and geospatial industries, said that it is seeing "a payoff" from years of internal research and development investment as the technology is now being commercialized and licensed to a broader array of customers.
Crytek Keeps Doors Open with Licensing Deal for Video Game Engine
According to sources speaking on condition of anonymity to video game site Kotaku, Crytek has agreed to an agreement that would allow Amazon to license its video game engine, CryEngine 3. The amount of the deal is said to be in the $50-70 million range and would help Crytek resolve its financial struggles. It also helps Amazon move further along in its quest to become a major factor in the video game industry.
IBM Strengthens Software Licensing Terms
Technology and consulting corporation IBM recently made some quiet adjustments to the licensing terms of Passport Advantage, the company's software license acquisition and management program. The language IBM uses in its standard license agreements is notoriously obfuscated; a perfect example being the fact that the company refers to these changes as "enhancements" despite not being in licensees' best interests.
Appistry Releases GenomePilot Software
Genomic research software and cloud services provider Appistry recently announced that it has both launched its new software application, GenomePilot, and will soon end a contract it holds with the Broad Institute.
BYOD Security Alert: Enterprises Playing Russian Roulette with Mobile Apps
As businesses roll-out their BYOD strategies, most CIOs and CEOs have no idea that many of the mobile apps allowed to touch corporate systems and data engage in risky behaviors that could compromise data security and policy. This danger was underscored recently when a free app - Flashlight, which activated the phone's flash function to use it as a flashlight, secretly recorded personal user information such as location of phone, details of the owner, etc., and sent it on to advertisers.
Microsoft Licensing Almost Got Better-But Not Quite
When Microsoft missed the boat on mobile devices and the cloud, it looked as though the company's days as an industry titan were coming to a close. But the company has made a remarkable adjustment in course, offering up a competitive cloud offering in Azure, and pivoting from its old desktop-based business model to one of cloud services. It has even shaken up its Windows empire in a big way, and recently the company announced that its much-touted forthcoming OS, Windows 10, would be a free upgrade for every current Windows user (which means most computer users).
SoftwareOne Lands Compucom's Software Business Unit
SoftwareOne is well-known in the field as a software licensing specialist firm, and it's about to be even more so well-known for such operations thanks to a major new move in the field. SoftwareOne reportedly, recently bought Compucom's entire software business unit, a move that contains several opportunities for SoftwareOne to advance in a field it was already a large part of.
Cloud or No, Software Licensing Still a Big Concern
Most people don't think twice about software licensing. Whether most of the software used in a day comes with the computer itself, or whether it was provided by the business for which someone works, software licensing doesn't come to mind. But software licensing is still a major concern for many businesses out there, and the rapidly-changing landscape for software is making already muddy waters even tougher to traverse.
BMC Looks to Slash Mainframe Software Licensing Costs
The surging growth of mobile, Internet of things (IoT) and big data analytics is increasing mainframe workloads. In turn, this heightened activity is driving up the charges for key mainframe enabling software. BMC is tackling the issue with its management suite, which it says can strip 20 percent out of IBM Monthly License Charge (MLC) software costs.
Open-Source Code Carries Licensing Risks
Open-source software was once considered the arena of software engineering experimentation and Internet-for-all advocates, offering free, customizable and flexible applications for a range of consumer and business purposes. Increasingly though, open-source has gone mainstream-and is upsetting the apple cart when it comes to software licensing practices.
Schneider Opts For Flexera Solutions
Flexera Software made news today when it announced that global specialist in energy management Schneider Electric will be implementing the FlexNet Producer Suite Software Monetization solution.
Software Licensing Enters New Era
What might software licensing look like in the future? The writing is pretty clearly on the wall that the democratization of software licensing models is giving organizations increasingly more flexibility around choosing and purchasing applications.
Don't Let Audits Ruin a Good Thing
Software is a key competitive driver for businesses that outperform the market, as evidenced by a recent IBM Global C-Suite Study that found 56 percent of CEOs for outperforming organizations planned to focus on emerging technology in the next three years as a strategic priority.
Microsoft Software Licensing via Amazon Shows Steep Price Disparity
Word on the Web is that those who will license Microsoft's SQL Server on Amazon Web Services will experience a price disparity compared to other platforms, and not in a good way. According to unnamed sources as cited by The Register, when compared to other options, Amazon is pricier than the competition. But why?
Campaign for Clear Licensing Sets its Sights on IBM, SAP
The latest news surrounding IBM and SAP concerns their relationships with their respective customers. According to the Campaign for Clear Licensing (CCL), a not-for-profit group that campaigns on behalf of customers for clear and manageable software licensing programs, the two computing giants may have been less than forthcoming with their clients about their license terms and conditions.
Mitigating Homeland Cybersecurity with Software Licensing Optimization
The Department of Homeland Security's Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation (CDM) program is important if you are in charge of any sort of IT for a government agency, no matter how big or small. The regulation requires all governmental agencies to keep track of the devices on their networks that they may not own or have expected to be present, as well as the ones that should be present but have been noticeably absent for a while.
Flexera, Polycom Explore NFV and Software Monetization Trends at ITEXPO
The telecommunications industry is rapidly expanding and diversifying as consumers demand new technologies to enhance their services. By obliging, companies can enhance the experience they are able to deliver customers, offering a greater number of communications and service options, all of which feature upgraded quality, connectivity and collaborative opportunities. At the same time it benefits the customer, adding new technologies can also bring telecom businesses into the modern age, ensuring that they profit from their network function virtualization (NFV) strategies through the use of software monetization solutions.
Using CAL for Software License Management
In the software licensing sector, Client Access License, or CAL, is a software license distributed by software companies that enables clients to connect to its server software and take advantage of its services. Of course, maintaining compliance is no small undertaking, but Flexera Software simplifies the ins and outs of it all.
Globetrotting Software Can Be a Legal Nightmare
Software licensing can be a minefield of small print and sneaky terms. And, one of the biggest bugaboos is geographic or territorial licensing restrictions. Procurement teams can spend months negotiating favorable terms in a license agreement, only to find out that the software they have purchased cannot be used throughout the entire global enterprise.
US Newspaper Turns to Software Licensing to Increase Revenue
When someone mentions a news agency, you probably imagine paper-strewn, open-floor offices, or swarms of reporters surrounding noteworthy people as they exit buildings and cars, or correspondents talking into video cameras outside barricades and inside studios filled with flat screens. But one thing you probably don't think of is the software built to support these organizations and the technologies involved.
Microsoft CAL Licensing Has Evolved Thanks to Cloud and BYOD
Software licensing can be a tricky prospect, and the cloud makes things even foggier when it comes to adhering to license requirements. Flexera Software has experience with this on both ends of the spectrum, since the company works to help enterprises comply with licensing agreements but also works with application developers on managing their software entitlements.
Is it Better to Start a Biz or License the Idea?
It starts with an idea. But what software developers do after they come up with the next killer app can make a huge difference. Does the maker start a business to sell the idea, or do they license the technology to an existing firm for faster time to market and a better chance at industry-wide adoption?
Microsoft Developer Licensing Administration Can Save Big Bucks
When it comes to developer licensing, keeping costs down is a top priority for making a go of the applications business. And sometimes it's the simple things that really make a big impact in this regard. Take, for instance, Microsoft Development Network (MSDN) subscriptions-depending on the size of one's organization, savvy management of these can avoid expensive mistakes.
Windows Enterprise Adapts Per-User Licensing Scheme
Microsoft recently updated its licensing terms for Windows Enterprise: as of Dec. 1 organizations can obtain volume licenses on a per-user basis instead of a per-device basis. This allows users to access Windows on any machine without having to pay for a separate license for each one, including devices that run the OS in virtualized mode.
How to Develop a Baseline for Software Licensing
When it comes to software licensing, it's all about the base…lining. Yes, the play on the Meghan Trainor has been done almost to death, but the reality is we all get it. There has to be a foundation. Meghan tells girls where to find theirs and your IT team needs to do the same. If you're looking at software compliance, you have to have a baseline.
FlexNet Licensing Adds Powerful Defenses Against Hackers
It's easy to worry about hackers these days. Every few days it seems there's some new bit of information about someone getting hacked; some business getting hit, some nude photos being taken, somebody who discovers he or she has a bundle of new credit cards, all of which have been maxed out already, and so on combine to set a very distressing picture for those concerned about hackers. Software licensing has similar concerns about hackers, and to that end, Flexera Software has brought out a new line of enhancements for its FlexNet Licensing system, which will provide what it calls a "ring of defense" around applications.
How to Avoid a Costly Oracle Audit
According to a recent report from Flexera Software and IDC, a whopping 85 percent of organizations queried were out of compliance with their software licensing agreements, while 63 percent of them had been audited in the past 18 to 24 months. Since Oracle is one of the top software auditors, companies should be on the lookout for the most common violations to protect their investments.
SoftInventive Labs Launches New Software Management Solution
SoftInventive Lab, an international provider of software licensing solutions for corporate networking, recently announced a brand new version of its Total Network Inventory platform. Total Network Inventory 3 is a software management solution that allows for near seamless license discovery on a company's desired network. The platform works to provide detailed software licensing info while also revealing any compatibility issues.
US Commerce Dept Updates Ukraine Export Controls, Software Licensing
The U.S. Commerce Department's Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) updated its website recently to include new FAQs on Ukraine-related export control issues. These updates made clear some of the uncertainty surrounding Export Administration Regulations, 15 C.F.R. Parts 730-774 (EAR).
Software Maintenance Fees Imply You Get What You Pay For, But is This a Contradiction in Terms?
Computers have essentially made everyone's lives easier. So many things that once required a completely hands on approach can now be accomplished by various computer products. This is also true in the health industry, which includes dentistry. Dental software researcher SoftwareAdvice.com reported that dental offices overwhelmingly investigate the purchase of integrated software for business and clinical applications, but software for the integration of digital sensors is the most requested application.
Why Every Software Producer Needs Good Entitlement Management
One of the most important components of any software licensing scheme is entitlement management. While some software producers wonder why they might need a dedicated back-office application to facilitate licensing and entitlement management for the software they offer, these producers risk IP leakage, customer service issues and license overages if they do not.
App Revolution is Changing How Enterprise Software is Licensed
The consumerization of IT is manifesting itself as more than just bring-your-own-device (BYOD) policies. The trend is also is affecting enterprise software itself, as employees are starting to demand that their enterprise solutions perform as simply as their consumer and BYOD software does already.
Stop Wasting Money: Enterprises Must Invest in Software Licensing Management
As the year comes to a close and enterprise businesses revisit their budgets, one area they may realize is hemorrhaging money is software. Why is this? Software licensing solutions providers Flexera Software recently teamed up with industry-analyst IDC to better understand the burden software licensing places on companies. Through their research, the firms found that one of the primary sources of lost dollars was "shelfware," which refers to compliance risk and software applications that were purchased but never used.
CCL Study Slams Oracle's Software Licensing Practices
Oracle has to do a much better job in its interactions with customers, according to a report by the Campaign for Clear Licensing (CCL). The "Key Risks in Managing Oracle Licensing" study found that only 8 percent of users said their relationship with Oracle was "acceptable." In the survey of 100 Oracle customers, 92 percent disagreed or strongly disagreed that communication from Oracle had been clear and straightforward.
Microsoft, Flexera Team Up to Improve Cloud App Migration
In the enterprise landscape, one of the most well-established cloud computing platforms is Microsoft Azure, which offers a secure and flexible environment from which organizations can implement sophisticated and demanding hosted solutions. But with the sudden rise of cloud-based applications and software, organizations also have encountered a need for cloud-based licensing and monetization models in order to take full advantage of all the cloud has to offer. For software manufacturers, it's crucial to be able to offer its customers easily accessible models.
Five Legal Issues Not-for-Profit App Developers Should Remember
Mobile apps serve as a more convenient and feature-laden method of accessing Internet content and tools, and at their core they are simply a specialized form of software. As a result non-profit app developers must consider many of the same issues that other software developers do, with the addition of several legal considerations that are unique to mobile apps.
Are 'Freemium' Sales Models Ideal for Software Licensing?
The concept of "freemium" sounds pretty good to those of us left holding the bill. How can we take advantage of key offerings and not have a large debt due at the end of the arrangement? At the same time, how does software licensing fit into the mix? After all, these companies need to make money, too.
Fallbrook Utility District OKs GIS Software Licensing Agreement
In March of last year, the Fallbrook Public Utility District (FPUD) and the Rainbow Municipal Water District were joined together to form what is now known as the North County Joint Powers Authority (JPA) as part of an initiative that serves the purpose of saving taxpayer money by unifying water utility companies in the region. To accomplish all of this, both agencies would transition towards a business model that shared employees and resources between them, eventually making their relationship tighter and interdependent.
Will License Upgrade Models Soon Be a Thing of the Past?
If your business has ever purchased the rights to use a particular software program, you're likely familiar with the license upgrade model. This is when a software distributor offers licensees the newest version of a product at a significantly reduced price, provided that users already own a full license for a qualifying, earlier version of the same product. For years, this software licensing model has worked, but that might be changing soon.
Microsoft Moves to Per-user Windows Software Licensing for Virtualized Access
A recent tech news report says Microsoft has entered a new phase of operations by licensing Windows on a per-user basis to businesses. The change in pricing model is not expected to make a huge impact on the market, but it is the first time the computing giant has dabbled in a sort of subscription service for its flagship platform.
Shelfware Got Your Software Licensing Down?
In a world where the cloud is gaining more attention, how should the enterprise make better use of its software investments and future spending? In many an organization, spending on enterprise software is feeling the squeeze and shelfware is running rampant. Will this change the future of software licensing?
Flexera Highlights Need for Software Licensing
Software licensing can be a complicated issue. One of the biggest challenges is not making compliance part of a regular routine in an asset management program. Part of this can include establishing a clear and concise software policy, which should help employees understand the value of software and learn the difference between legal and illegal use, as well as pledge their commitment to the proper use of software.
Deutsche Post DHL Lawyer Advocates for Basic-language Software Licenses
Deutsche Post DHL, the global shipping company synonymous with the red and yellow box vans and shipping containers, has a global base of approximately 480,000 employees. This means that it can afford to throw its weight around a bit. However, in the world of licensing, company executives still say they want to keep things simple and shy away from convoluted legal jargon.
Software Can Drive Incremental Revenue for Hardware Makers
As anyone who owns a smartphone knows, the value of a device now comes just as much from the software running the device as the device itself. While the Nokia Lumia may have a killer camera and good hardware, for instance, it does not have the success of a Samsung Galaxy or an Apple iPhone because its app ecosystem as a Windows Phone is far more limited.
Get the Most Out of Updating Licensed Software and Firmware
Updating official software is not only expensive, but it's a hassle too. For software and firmware developers making this process as simple as possible is key, yet difficult. With the upcoming Internet of Things, where more devices than ever are expected to connect to and use the Internet for improved service, this inconvenience has the potential to evolve into a nightmare of updates and re-installations.
Certero Updates iAssetStudio Software Asset Management Solution
Certero recently announced the latest release of its software asset management solution, AssetStudio version 5. The new version includes an improved user interface with a dashboard that gives quick access to graphs and reports and can be purchased under an SaaS plan.
Software Licensing Challenges Are Not Necessarily Technical
Organizational change can be difficult. Whether your business is large or small, many within it will be resistant to change, especially those who are most successful and thrive in the current state of affairs. In the classic book "Who Moved My Cheese?" by Spencer Johnson, we learn that change is inevitable, and that we have to develop the right attitude about change. What offers more of a challenge is being the agent of change, or the expert on the change that needs to be done.
Flexera Launches Solution with Support for Multiple Platforms
If one needs any more proof that the cloud is getting more popular all the time, that proof is coming in the form of a cloud-based company being purchased by IBM. Flexera is taking advantage of the growing popularity of the technology by introducing the InstallAnywhere 2014 Multi-Platform Installation for physical, virtual and cloud environments. Flexera is already one of the leading providers of next generation software licensing. Now the company is taking the next step when it comes to cloud providers.
Focusing on the Core Business is Important for Success
There have been many instances where companies start off with one service or product, branch out to new areas when there is a demand and finally, fail. While it is not wrong to expand and make the best use of business opportunities, it is also vital that the business focuses on its core services. These core services are what differentiate the company from others, and it is also the reason why customers come to do business. When the focus is taken away from this core service, quality suffers and this can shake the very foundation of the company.
Seven Factors Driving Software Licensing and Entitlement
Sometimes, the technical side of tech can be a bit opaque, but if one were to look at the tangible results from backend innovations the results are crystal clear. It is difficult for people to tie these business drivers back to the software licensing and entitlement from which they came.
Subscription Software Licensing Model Brings Added Revenue, Ongoing Sales Effort
For anyone who has been near a computer in the last five years, it comes as no surprise that subscription-based licensing is on the rise among software developers. Moving to a subscription-based licensing model is not the end of it, however; shifting from a perpetual license model to a subscription model requires a drastically different way of doing business.
Phases of Software Licensing and What They Mean for Startup Growth
There are many business cycles, but software as a service (SaaS) startups tend to go through two basic phases over the course of their healthy development-the Wildfire Phase and the Maturity Phase-according to the folks at Flexera Software. Neither phase is superior to the other nor is one more important than the other but differences during both phases can either make for unheard of success or simply spell doom for an SaaS company if the context of its growth is not fully understood.
Flexera Announces AdminStudio Suite 2014
IT departments in many advanced businesses have long used application readiness procedures for preparing and testing enterprise applications before they are placed into use by employees companywide. They have standardized procedures that work for a range of traditional applications, but those procedures may not always work well with mobile applications because of the transient nature of mobile devices.
Agile Development and Software Licensing: What's the Link?
The term "agile" by definition means to be "able to move quickly and easily." In terms of software, the idea of agile development simply means that approaches to software development help businesses respond to unpredictability. Basically, agile development is a different way of managing IT development teams and projects.
Microsoft Announces the Global Availability of MPSA
The global availability of information and communications technology (ICT) has increased the customer base for software companies, and addressing this market requires adapting some of the processes that are in place. During the recent Microsoft Worldwide Partner Conference (WPC), the company announced it is expanding to more countries with its Microsoft Products and Services Agreement (MPSA).
Flexera Obtains BMC's Technology Alliance Program Validation
Flexera Software is a company that helps application producers and enterprises increase application usage and the value they derive from their software by providing services such as software licensing management and software compliance, as well as installation and application packaging solutions.
Minimizing the Impact of a Software Audit
Modern enterprises are built upon a plethora of software, each one requiring a license agreement that, after a while, can become lost in a maze of contracts. Software auditing has become a major factor in enforcing these agreements as well as providing a source of income for the companies who perform them and charge fees for discrepancies that are found.
Software Licensing Tensions Mount Between Developers and the Enterprise
Virtualization holds a variety of promises for organizations-promises so strong that management put a strategy in place to shift the entire approach to information management. In the process, the plan is to copy machines and duplicate systems on virtual platforms. The enterprise will have everything it needs to run the business and enjoy the virtual benefits - everything except the right software licensing.
Many Roles Can Fill Software Asset Management Teams
In order to properly control software-related costs and resources, many businesses are creating software asset management teams to handle the day-to-day usage of software within their ranks. These teams are often responsible for the entire lifecycle of all software solutions their businesses utilize, and various individuals may be responsible for purchasing, installing, maintaining, and disposing of a number of products.
Openness of GNU Scaring Away Businesses?
The GNU General Public License, or GPL, is a free software license that allows end users the ability to use, share, and modify the software. It has become a staple of many organizations' software packages, and as Infoworld has pointed out, it has become important to the functioning of many IT departments.
2013 Global Software Survey Produces Shocking Unlicensed Software Statistics
Eighty-one percent of software installed on PCs in Nigeria last year was not licensed, according to the 2013 Global Software Survey released by BSA | The Software Alliance (BSA). The study cited the commercial value of unlicensed software in Nigeria reached more than $287 million in 2013. Overall, the Middle East and Africa unlicensed software value surpassed $4.3 billion in 2013.
Software Update Solutions Improve Overall Performance, Cut Costs
The software we have in our smartphones, tablets, PCs and servers is what makes it possible for us to communicate, play and work. The more efficient the software, the better we are able to do those things without any glitches. If, on the other hand, there are any issues with the software, it can result in a smartphone not making a call or a server not delivering the emails to employees, with the real possibility of more catastrophic scenarios.
Flexera Software App Portal for the Modern Workforce
To fulfill the need for rapid software distribution and enhanced visibility into software asset management, Flexera Software has introduced the interface redesign of App Portal, an industry-leading enterprise app store. App Portal enables the reclamation of unused software for users and avoids overspending on expensive enterprise software licenses.
Software Patents Need to Get Specific, Says Supreme Court
The issue of patents in the software arena has been a tough one to follow for some time. There's a lot of back and forth, as major companies duke it out and the various non-practicing entities-less charitably known as "patent trolls"-getting involved in the issue. But a new decision from the Supreme Court is about to make things a little more interesting throughout the entire sphere of patent law, as the Court found that software patents that don't cover a specific software process can't be valid.
Software Piracy 'Bytes' Back: Engineering Design Company Fined Over $55k
There's no substitute for professional licensed software. While free knock-off versions of most popular products exist, they are often poor substitutes. Programs like OpenOffice, for instance, simply do not have the same range of options as Microsoft Word. However, these programs are expensive, and many businesses try to get around these costs by illegally downloading the software in the hopes that they won't get caught.
Licensing, Entitlement Management Important for Monetizing IoT
In a recent projection, IDC says the worldwide IoT market will increase by more than $5 trillion over the next six years. As of last year, the worldwide IoT market was about $1.9 trillion, according to IDC, and it will likely reach $7.1 trillion by 2020.
Australian Enterprises Becoming 'Accidental Software Pirates'?
Is your enterprise a software pirate? Companies can find themselves paying thousands, even millions, if they aren't careful about staying up to date with their software license agreements. A recent survey of Australian enterprises, conducted by a partnership between Flexera Software and IDC, has revealed that a vast amount of Australian organizations have fallen out of compliance with software license agreements.
How is Licensing Changing the Open Source Landscape?
About 30 experts in the legal aspects of open source technology recently began a discussion about how the precedents that apply to open source software are not as applicable, nor do they help to draw analogies in the nascent fields of open source hardware and open databases. While some similarities apply, especially in terms of utility and uniformity, there are many differences that are easily dealt with in open source software but pose more difficult problems in the cases of open source hardware and open databases.
Simulations Plus Ends Licensing Agreement with TSLR
Licensing agreements are sometimes terminated, as is the case between Simulations Plus, Inc., a provider of simulation and modeling software for pharmaceutical discovery and development, and TSRL, Inc., a Michigan-based corporation.
InstallShield 2014 Supports Diverse Software Installations
Not too long ago, people generally had a desktop or a laptop, and installing software on these devices was not that complicated. However, today applications can be installed on smartphones, tablets, cloud and virtualized instances as well as high-DPI displays, touch devices and agile development. Without the right application usage management (AUM) solution things can get complicated for regular users, which can result in the wrong instance of the application being installed on the device.
New Study Finds Growth is the Key to Software Success
McKinsey & Company recently published an interesting article about what it takes in the software industry to reach dramatic success. It analyzed roughly 3,000 software firms and looked for key attributes, and what it found was that growth is the critical factor.
Monetizing the Internet of Things
IoT is all-encompassing because it enables different devices to communicate with each other to improve the overall standard of living of the people. For this reason, the IoT market is projected to be around $1.9 trillion by the end of this decade, and many companies are preparing to have a share in this huge pie.
A Seven-figure Software License True-Up? More Likely Than You Think
When most people think of software piracy, the first thoughts turn generally to the deliberate, to the reckless downloader who snags a copy of Photoshop or the like at no cost. But there's a much larger breed of software pirate out there that doesn't even know it is a software pirate called the "accidental software pirate," and a recent study from Flexera Software, prepared jointly with IDC, shows off just how deep this brand of piracy can go, and what it can cost the company that's not prepared for it.
The Third Industrial Revolution: Intelligent Devices, Software, and the Internet of Things
Based on this report, it is clear that device manufacturers are emerging from a period of significant challenge â€“ characterized by low margins, stiff competition and brittle manufacturing supply chains. Increasingly they are retooling their offerings to make them intelligent and Internet-connected, opening up new ways of creating value for their customers...
Virtualization, License Compliance and the Application Producer/Enterprise Relationship
The relationship between software vendors and intelligent device manufacturers ("application producers") and their customers ("enterprises") has been a complicated one. On the one hand, application producers develop mission-critical applications critical to every facet of an enterprise's operations. Without software, the remarkable efficiency and cost reductions organizations have been able to achieve in recent decades simply wouldnâ€™t be possible.
This white paper examines the pricing and licensing strategies that application producers have put into place and are planning, and the impact that this will have on the often--fraught application producer/enterprise relationship.